Climate Change

The Climate Change toolbox provides information about climate change and wilderness. It includes management guidelines and strategies, a glossary, and other resources you may find useful. Toolboxes are comprehensively reviewed and updated approximately every three years, with intermittent small updates and additions in the interim. To suggest new materials for inclusion, email Lisa Ronald at Date of last update: 08/18/2018.

Resources, Publications, Whitepapers


Scientific Publications

  • Baron, J.S., L. Gunderson, C.D. Allen, E. Fleishman, D. McKenzie, L.A. Meyerson, J. Oropeza, and N. Stephenson. 2009. Options for national parks and reserves for adapting to climate change. Environmental Management 44:1033-1042.
  • Baron et. al. Some Guidelines for Helping Natural Resources Adapt to Climate Change
  • Belant, J.L., E.A. Beever, J.E. Gross, J.L. Lawler. 2010. Ecological responses to contemporary climate change within species, communities, and ecosystems. Conservation Biology 24:7-9.
  • Brooke, C. 2008. Conservation and adaptation to climate change. Conservation Biology 22:1471-1476.
  • Bunn, A.G. 2009. The rock and ice problem in national parks: an opportunity for monitoring climate change impacts. Park Science 26(1):17-21.
  • Frelich, L.E., and P.B. Reich. Wilderness Conservation in an Era of Global Warming and Invasive Species: A Case Study from Minnesota's Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness
  • Gillson, L., and K.J. Willis. 2004. "As Earth's testimonies tell": wilderness conservation in a changing world. Ecology Letters 7:990-998.
  • Griffith, B., J.M. Scott, R. Adamcik, D. Ashe, B. Czech, R. Fischman, P. Gonzalez, J. Lawler, A.D. McGuire, and A. Pidgorna. 2009. Climate change adaptation for the US National Wildlife Refuge System. Environmental Management 44:1043-1052.
  • Hannah, L., G. Midgley, S. Andelman, M. Aranujo, G. Hughes, E. Martinez-Meyer, R. Pearson, and P. Williams. 2007. Protected area needs in a changing climate. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:131-138.
  • Hansen, L., J. Hoffman, C. Drews, and E. Mielbrecht. 2009. Designing climate-smart conservation: guidance and case studies. Conservation Biology 24:63-69.
  • Heinz Center. 2008. Strategies for managing the effects of climate change on wildlife and ecosystems
  • Heller, N.E., and E.S. Zavaleta. 2009. Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: a review of 22 years of recommendations. Biological Conservation 142:14-32.
  • Hobbs et. al. Guiding Concepts for Park and Wilderness Stewardship in an Era of Global Environmental Change
  • Joyce, L.A., G.M. Blate, S.G. McNulty, C.I. Millar, S. Moser, R.P. Neilson, and D.L. Peterson. 2009. Managing for multiple resources under climate change: National Forests. Environmental Management 44:1022-1032.
  • Locke, H., and B. Mackey. 2009. The nature of climate change. International Journal of Wilderness 15(2):7-13,14.
  • Mawdsley, J.R., R.O'Malley, and D.S. Ojima. 2009. A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 23:1080-1089.
  • Moritz, C., J.L. Patton, C.J. Conroy, J.L. Parra, G.C. White, and S.R. Beissinger. 2008. Impact of a century of climate change on small-mammal communities in Yosemite National Park, USA. Science 322:261-264.
  • Olson, D., M. O'Connell, Y. Fang, J. Burger. 2009. Managing for climate change within protected area landscapes. Natural Areas Journal 29:394-399.
  • Parmesan, C. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37:637-669.
  • Post, E., and many other authors. 2009. Ecological dynamics across the arctic associated with recent climate change. Science 325:1355-1358.
  • Welling, L. Responding to the challenge of climate change: NPS strategies
  • West, J.M., S.H. Julius, P. Kareiva, C. Enquist, J.J. Lawler, B. Peterson, A.E. Johnson, and M.R. Shaw. 2009. U.S. natural resources and climate change: concepts and approaches for management adaptation. Environmental Management 44:1001-1021.