Climate Change

The Climate Change toolbox provides information about climate change and wilderness. It includes management guidelines and strategies, a glossary, and other resources you may find useful. To suggest new materials for inclusion, email Lisa Ronald at

Resources, Publications, Whitepapers


Scientific Publications

  • Baron, J.S., L. Gunderson, C.D. Allen, E. Fleishman, D. McKenzie, L.A. Meyerson, J. Oropeza, and N. Stephenson. 2009. Options for national parks and reserves for adapting to climate change. Environmental Management 44:1033-1042.
  • Baron et. al. Some Guidelines for Helping Natural Resources Adapt to Climate Change
  • Belant, J.L., E.A. Beever, J.E. Gross, J.L. Lawler. 2010. Ecological responses to contemporary climate change within species, communities, and ecosystems. Conservation Biology 24:7-9.
  • Brooke, C. 2008. Conservation and adaptation to climate change. Conservation Biology 22:1471-1476.
  • Bunn, A.G. 2009. The rock and ice problem in national parks: an opportunity for monitoring climate change impacts. Park Science 26(1):17-21.
  • Frelich, L.E., and P.B. Reich. Wilderness Conservation in an Era of Global Warming and Invasive Species: A Case Study from Minnesota's Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness
  • Gillson, L., and K.J. Willis. 2004. "As Earth's testimonies tell": wilderness conservation in a changing world. Ecology Letters 7:990-998.
  • Griffith, B., J.M. Scott, R. Adamcik, D. Ashe, B. Czech, R. Fischman, P. Gonzalez, J. Lawler, A.D. McGuire, and A. Pidgorna. 2009. Climate change adaptation for the US National Wildlife Refuge System. Environmental Management 44:1043-1052.
  • Hannah, L., G. Midgley, S. Andelman, M. Aranujo, G. Hughes, E. Martinez-Meyer, R. Pearson, and P. Williams. 2007. Protected area needs in a changing climate. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5:131-138.
  • Hansen, L., J. Hoffman, C. Drews, and E. Mielbrecht. 2009. Designing climate-smart conservation: guidance and case studies. Conservation Biology 24:63-69.
  • Heinz Center. 2008. Strategies for managing the effects of climate change on wildlife and ecosystems
  • Heller, N.E., and E.S. Zavaleta. 2009. Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: a review of 22 years of recommendations. Biological Conservation 142:14-32.
  • Hobbs et. al. Guiding Concepts for Park and Wilderness Stewardship in an Era of Global Environmental Change
  • Joyce, L.A., G.M. Blate, S.G. McNulty, C.I. Millar, S. Moser, R.P. Neilson, and D.L. Peterson. 2009. Managing for multiple resources under climate change: National Forests. Environmental Management 44:1022-1032.
  • Locke, H., and B. Mackey. 2009. The nature of climate change. International Journal of Wilderness 15(2):7-13,14.
  • Mawdsley, J.R., R.O'Malley, and D.S. Ojima. 2009. A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 23:1080-1089.
  • Moritz, C., J.L. Patton, C.J. Conroy, J.L. Parra, G.C. White, and S.R. Beissinger. 2008. Impact of a century of climate change on small-mammal communities in Yosemite National Park, USA. Science 322:261-264.
  • Olson, D., M. O'Connell, Y. Fang, J. Burger. 2009. Managing for climate change within protected area landscapes. Natural Areas Journal 29:394-399.
  • Parmesan, C. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37:637-669.
  • Post, E., and many other authors. 2009. Ecological dynamics across the arctic associated with recent climate change. Science 325:1355-1358.
  • Welling, L. Responding to the challenge of climate change: NPS strategies
  • West, J.M., S.H. Julius, P. Kareiva, C. Enquist, J.J. Lawler, B. Peterson, A.E. Johnson, and M.R. Shaw. 2009. U.S. natural resources and climate change: concepts and approaches for management adaptation. Environmental Management 44:1001-1021.